The Meiji period was a time of political and social revolution. 1 Background ; 2 Causes of modernization . Background. These beliefs catapulted the Meiji regime into a more organized and democratic governance. Although he was defeated and committed suicide, Saigo was not branded a traitor and became a heroic figure in Japanese history. Ja pan during the Meiji period was involved in two victorious wars. Among the many reforms that took place during the Meiji period, those regarding the school system have contributed the most to the enlightenment of the Japanese people. The Meiji Restoration was a coup d'état that resulted in the dissolution of Japan's feudal system of government and the restoration of the imperial system. No one is interested in "economizing" on it, and the question of "affording" does not enter into the building of a multi-million yen school. Reaction against domestic reform was comparatively calm, however, and the major stumbling block facing the bakufu was the foreign problem. One of the main contributing factors to Japan’s modernization was the emulation of Togukawa society and the Togukawa beliefs (Craig 150). Japan - Japan - The opening of Japan: In 1845, when Abe Masahiro replaced Mizuno Tadakuni as head of the rōjū, there were various reactions against the Tempō reforms. Women still had no power in society or their families but they were now encouraged to be educated. The Meiji Restoration was a time for change and life of women was changing. The land tax, which contributed to 78% of the nation’s income in 1868, had decreased to 30% by 1897. There are many things Japan can learn from Denmark. To be sure, the Meiji Restoration occurred 150 years ago, but recent historiography stresses the many ways in which the Edo period (1603-1868) laid the foundation for Japan’s development as a modern nation. The phrase Meiji restoration (明治維新 Meiji-ishin) refers to the events both during and following 1868, which resulted in the restoration of power to the Emperor, as well as the period of significant social and economic reforms within Japanese society that coincided with the Meiji emperor's reign (1868–1912). By the end of the Meiji Restoration, Japan, as “one of the world’s largest produces of coal and exporters of copper” (Miocevich, 26), definitely possessed a progressive and prosperous economy. Mass primary education is in the Meiji tradition but the urge to expand it has never been greater than in post-reform Japan. However, the social circumstances are different between Japan and Denmark. As a result of these reforms, in the 2000s, less than half of those surveyed agreed to the statement, “lawmakers are squandering taxpayers’ money.” Japan should learn from Danish fiscal democracy. Japan was to receive Taiwan and other territories from China, but was forced to return the A Confucian bureaucracy was established, along Chinese lines, and a centralized revenue-collection system set up. They wanted to unite the country under a new, centralized government in order to strengthen their army to defend against foreign influence. It was the job of the woman of the hosehold to stay at home and look after children, cook, and clean. Japan’s industry was dramatically transformed, creating a better economy. Meiji restoration was the source of modernization in Japan while westernization brought about modernization in China. Five years after the emperor was restored to the throne, Meiji adviser Iwakura Tomomi led a delegation of nearly 50 government officials on an 18-month diplomatic mission to Europe and the United States. Instead, the Meiji government initiated a series of reforms that resulted in the abolition of the old class structure, elimination of samurai entitlements to hereditary stipends, deregulation of markets formerly controlled by officially chartered merchant guilds, and removal of restrictions on social mobility. It brought momentous social, political and economic changes to Japan, and these changes became the foundation of the Japan we know today. The Meiji Period is a term used to refer to the 45-year reign of Emperor Meiji in Japan, from 1868 to 1912. The modernization resulted into Japan being rated as the most developed in the whole of Eastern Asia. They were constantly exploited and denied any freedom. Index . This situation changed with the Meiji restoration in 1868. Conflicts of interests in Korea between Japan and China, led to the Sino-Japanese War in 1894-1895. The ideas for the reforms largely came about as a result of trips that Japanese officials took to the United States and Europe. The Taika reforms (646) aimed at creating a Chinese-type state. The medieval forms of development to modern era was also captured in the restoration. After two centuries, the Japanese policy of seclusion under the shōguns of the Edo period came to an end when the country was opened to trade by the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854. Just adopting the systems employed in Denmark like a … By 1906, school attendance was as high as 95%, and Japan boasted one of the highest literacy rates in the world. Another change in Meiji Japan was for womens roles. Some of the reforms included new railroads to join all four major islands, shipping lines, telegraph and telephone systems, and deep water harbors to allow bigger ships. The final result led, on the one hand, to Japan becoming a more modern state and, on the other, to the emergence of an expansionist policy that eventually led to World War II in the Pacific. It was not until 1946 that they were given the right to vote. the developments in the post-1868 period were not planned before the Restoration. The modernization resulted in both and positive and negative impacts to both Japan and China (Jansen & Rozman, 2014). This led the Meiji government to introduce a number of economic reforms. The first phase was dominated by an egalitarian philosophy inspired by the French, which resulted in numerous instances of peasant unrest. resulted in reforms of the currency and banking system. The Meiji government regarded Japan as a … All land was claimed to belong to the emperor; large estates were abolished and some land redistributed to peasants. Women of Japan were given the same rights as men, but were not treated as equals. The Meiji Restoration played a significant role in the modernisation of Japan. Page 7 Economic Modernization of Japan The landowners, who were enriched by the commercialization of agriculture that partly resulted from the Meiji land tax reform, began transferring most of their new savings out of agriculture into new industries. In fact, when I lecture on modern Japanese history, I generally start back in the sixteenth century, in the late Muromachi period. During early industrialisation, women were worked in factories under poor conditions. Some women worked at factories as a result of industrialisation. The treaties had subjected Japan s external trade to tariffs imposed by the foreign treaty powers. In the years following the Meiji Restoration of 1868 and the fall of the shogunate, the newly formed Meiji government embarked on reforms to centralize and modernize Japan. The Meiji Restoration had two major slogans: Fukoku Kyohei and Bunmei Kaika. Explanation: The meiji period (1868–1912) in Japanese history is known traditionally as an era of bustling reform during which the leaders of the restored imperial government sought to discard a feudal and backward civilization and to replace it with the modernity of the West. These reforms abruptly occurred during the Meiji Period (1868-1912). Viewed in international terms, another result of the Meiji Restoration was that Japan adapted to the times, in terms of becoming a modern nation. By the end of the Meiji Era, these situations were less common. Rappleye and Kariya (2011, p.53) point out that since the Meiji Restoration, Japan experienced three ‘Great Education Reforms’, namely the reform in the early Meiji era (1868–1890), during World War II and its aftermath (1937–1955), and the reform initiated under Prime Minister Nakasone’s Ad Hoc Council for Education (1983–1987). tions in a developing country such as Meiji Japan need not be interpreted as credible signs of development or of the government's ability to repay its foreign debt. The religious reforms carried out during the Meiji period resulted in the amalgamation of the Shinto shrines, which led to the demolition of many small shrines and the removal of Buddhist images. The Nature and Characteristics of the Meiji Modernization The samurai leaders, mainly Satsuma and Choshu men’ who engineered and led the Meiji Restoration had no pre-conceived program of social and economic reforms in mind - i.e. 2.1 The Meiji Restoration ; 3 Consequences of modernization . 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